Skip to Main Content

BIO 101: The Freshman Experience in Biology

Resources for students enrolled in the BIO 101 course



AUTHORS Written by scholars and researchers in a specific field.
  Author name(s) appears at the beginning or end of the article. The author(s)' credentials are often included.
AUDIENCE Written in technical and scholarly language understood by researchers, professionals, and students in that field.
SOURCES Always includes a bibliography (a list of sources or citations).

Focuses on academic study and research in the field.

CONTENT Also called "academic," "scholarly," or "peer-reviewed." The articles generally have a serious look. They often contain results of experiments - graphs, charts, and photographs. Few or no ads.
PRIMARY RESEARCH Scholarly journals will contain both primary and secondary research.
PEER REVIEW Research articles are usually submitted for peer review.
INDEXING Identified in subject-specialized indexes and databases. Eg.: BioOne, PubMed, PsycInfo, MLA Bibliography, Historical Abstracts, etc.
EXAMPLES OF JOURNALS Journal of Experimental Biology,
Shakespeare Quarterly,
Journal of Educational Research,




Written by professional or free-lance writers or occasionally by a well-known scholar

Articles are often written by staff writers.
The author's name does not always appear in the article.

Written for a general audience

Rarely includes a bibliography or notes
Deals with general interest and current topics
The articles generally have glossy photos and illustrations. Includes many ads for consumer goods. Articles are informative but not scholarly.

Articles in popular publications are generally considered secondary sources.
Not peer-reviewed; reviewed by the publication's editorial staff.
Identified in general periodical indexes & databases such as Academic Search Premier, Academic Onefile, etc.

Discover, The Economist
National Review, National Geographic
Psychology Today, Time,